Notes on Genus: Hypovirus

no particles
no particles

Type member: Cryphonectria hypovirus 1


General Description

The genus Hypovirus is the only genus in the family Hypoviridae and is so named because the members cause decreased virulence (hypovirulence) in their phyopathogenic fungal host. The viruses do not produce virions. They were originally thought to have a dsRNA genome but it is now believed that the dsRNA found in vesicles in infected fungi is a replicative form of the RNA.


There are no virions, although vesicles 50-80nm in diameter containing dsRNA and polymerase activity can be found in infected fungi.


Monopartite, linear, single stranded RNA of about 10-13 kbp. The 3' terminus has a poly(A) tract and the 5' terminus is blocked in some members. Isolates often contain additional shorter length or satellite-like dsRNAs, the function of which are not known.

Genus Genomic Organization

The members that have been sequenced appear to have either one or two open reading frames. When present, the shorter ORF (ORFA) is 5'-proximal and is sometimes autocatalytically cleaved into two smaller products. The N-terminus of the larger (or only) ORFB is a protease that autocatalytically releases. The remaining polypeptide contains polymerase and helicase domains.

Type Member Genomic Organization

There are two ORFs, each of which undergoes further processing:
ORFA (69 kDa) is autocatalytically cleaved into two products:
1. 29 kDaProtease
2. 40 kDaunknown function
ORFB (362 kDa) is autocatalytically cleaved into two products:
1. 48 kDaProtease
2.   314 kDaReplication protein: polyprotein containing polymerase and helicase domains